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Extraperitoneal end tunnel colostomy before the posterior sheath of the abdominal poster rectus muscles: a novel surgical technique to reduce the incidence of hernia

Parastomal hernia is one of the most common complications after colostomy. Preventive strategies are considerable. For less defect and better mechanical work in abdominal wall, extraperitoneal colostomy is preferred for preventing parastomal hernia. In this work, we demonstrated a new surgery technique through anatomy structures and mechanical principles

The role of cellular immunity in the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

Several severe acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) vaccines have been approved for clinical use. However, most studies use the SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody titers in duced after immunization as an evaluation indicator, and the role of cellular immune responses in the protective efficacy of vaccines is rarely mentioned. The synergistic effect of virus-specific humor al immunity and the cellular immune response helps the host fight against viral infection. A follow-up analysis of SARS-CoV-2-in fected individuals indicated that the early appearance of specific T cell responses is strongly correlated with mild symptoms and that individuals with pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural pro tein-specific T cells are more likely to be immune to infection. These findings suggest the important role of cellular immunity in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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