An Attempt to comprehend children’s height, by means of A/P/C model: Han Chinese over the periods 1985 to 2019
Human height is determined by genetics and “supply of inputs to health” (Steckel, 1995) . In most econometric investigations, mean height of young adults is regressed against average supply(- consumption) of essential nutrients, such as animal protein, in the final stage of human growth, say the late-adolescents (Baten, 2009; Beer, 2012; Grasgruber et al.,2016; etc.) [2-4]. A number of human biologists refer to the importance of “the first years of life”, including the gestation period (Cole, 2003; Deaton, 2007; also many pediatricians)[5, 6]. A recent human biology study con cludes, “most of the height increment seen in adults had already accrued to the age 1.5 years” (Cole and Mori, 2017) . The A/P/C approach contains cohort elements which cover the supply of in puts to health from birth to the current years of investigation on top of elements of age and period. This study analyzes a series of mean height surveys by age, male and female, provided by CNSSCH , Chinese government, 1985 through 2019, by five-year inter vals. There are two models at hand, Bayesian(Nakamura, 1986)  and IT(Yang Y. et al., 2008) 1. 1 For the past decades, the author has employed these two models in running cohort analyses of consumption of various food prod ucts with technical advice from mathematical statisticians (Clason; Saegusa). He is in no position to assert which model is superior. Whenever he had problems in running the programs, Clason and Saegusa have assisted him, in upgrading or refining the Bayesian programs [11, 12].
Stroke-Like Migraine Attacks After Radiation Therapy [Smart] Syndrome Suspicion Means Prompt Diagnosis
1.1. Background: Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy [SMART] syndrome is a rare and delayed complication of radiation therapy to the brain. Less than 100 cases have been de scribed in literature since it was first reported in 1995. On average, presentation is about more than 20 years after radiotherapy and pa tient normally present with stroke-like deficits, epileptic seizures and migraine. MRI is characteristic for unilateral and mainly pari eto-occipital cortical hyperintensities and gyriform enhancement. The importance of characterizing this syndrome for prompt recog nition and diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary biopsies and provide reassurance to the patient. 1.2. Case Description: We describe a 49-years-old female treated with craniospinal radiation for a IV ventricle tumor. 29 years later she was admitted in our hospital presenting migraine-like attacks, behavioral changes, bilateral loss of vision, seizures, confusion and gait instability. 1.3. Conclusions: As the global cancer survival rates improved considerably during last decades, long-term side effects of com plementary treatment as radiotherapy are likely to be more oftenly observed. SMART syndrome represents a characterizable and a distinguishable entity which can be differentiated from tumor re currence. The knowledge and awareness of this syndrome would substantially avoid unnecessary aggressive investigations and would significantly improve patient expectation and management.
1.1. Objective: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal reces sive tubular disorder characterized by metabolic alkalosis, hypo kalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. GS is mostly caused by inactivating mutations of the SLC12A3 gene. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features of a GS patient and investigate the underlying mutations of SLC12A3 gene in the ped igree. 1.2. Methods: A patient suffering from muscle weakness was clin ically diagnosed as GS. Clinical data of the proband were studied retrospectively. All of his family members were screened for SL C12A3 gene mutations. 26 exons and exon-intron boundaries of SLC12A3 gene were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction(P CR). PCR products were sequenced directly. 1.3. Results: The proband had hyperreninemia but hypoaldoster onemia, which was distinct from the cases previously reported. The proband and his sick brother were found to have the same compound heterozygous mutations (c.917C>T and IVS 14-8T>C) of SLC12A3 gene. Each mutation was detected in paternal and maternal genomic DNA, respectively. The proband’s healthy brother had one mutation (c.917C>T) only. IVS 14-8T>C was a novel splicing site mutation that had never been reported. 1.4. Conclusion: Hypoaldosteronemia was found in a GS patient. A novel heterozygous splicing site mutation of the SLC12A3 gene was reported, expanding the spectrum of SLC12A3 gene muta tions.